In the case of the larger firms the mark also has publicity value and shows the buyer that the object was made by a long-established firm with a reputation to uphold; such clear name- marks as Minton, Wedgwood, Royal Crown Derby and Royal Worcester are typical examples.
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With the increasing use of ceramic marks in the 19th century, a large proportion of English pottery and porcelain can be accurately identified and often dated.
'England':- Inclusion of the word 'England' in marks denotes a date after 1891, although some manufacturers (Thomas Elsmore & Sons for example) added the word slightly before this date. It was William Mc Kinley (the 25th president of the USA) who introduced the highly protectionist Mc Kinley Tariff Act of 1890 - this imposed tariffs on many imports (including pottery) in order to make it easier for the American manufacturers to sell their products.
Grandmother meant a great deal to the couple and passed along many of their things to her, including this vase.
Estimated age of the vase is who had a porcelain and decorating studio in Fischern, Bohemia (now Rybare Czechia). Found on examples of hand painted and hand decorated porcelains that are signed by artists who are most likely American China Painters.