Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and

Ag-NPs functionalized with three different monosaccharides and ethylene glycol were synthesized and characterised.Oxidative stress and toxicity was evaluated by protein carbonylation and MTT assay, respectively.Cellular uptake was evaluated by confocal microscopy and ICP-MS.Ag-NPs coated with galactose and mannose were considerably less toxic to neuronal-like cells and hepatocytes compared to particles functionalized by glucose, ethylene glycol or citrate.Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit.Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field.These findings provide new perspectives on modulating the bioactivity of Ag-NPs by using carbohydrates. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in particular, show excellent anti-microbial properties and therefore are rapidly being incorporated into a wide array of consumer products such as textiles, cosmetics or packaging materials, increasing the likelihood of human and environmental exposure [].

In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways.A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature.Unresolved questions include the detailed molecular uptake mechanism(s), reasons for cell toxicity, and the delivery efficiency of CPPs for different cargoes.Here, we give a review focused on uptake mechanisms used by CPPs for membrane translocation and certain experimental factors that affect the mechanism(s).Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches.

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